Trademark Showdown: Opposition vs. Litigation - What You Need to Know (Cost, Process & More)

04 Jan 2024

In the cutthroat world of business, your brand name is your battle cry. It’s the flag that waves, the anthem that rallies, and the shield that guards your market share. But what happens when another brand raises a similar banner, threatening to confuse your customers and dilute your hard-earned identity?

Enter the battlefield of trademark opposition and litigation. While daunting, these legal avenues are your weapons, empowering you to defend your brand and ensure it reigns supreme.

7-Year Content Veteran’s Guide to Navigating Trademark Battles:

What is Trademark Opposition?

Think of it as an early-warning system. Before a potentially infringing trademark gets officially registered, you, as the existing brand owner, can file an “opposition” with the Trade Marks Registry. This challenges the new mark’s registration based on various grounds, like:

  • Likelihood of confusion with your existing trademark: Will customers mistake the new brand for yours, jeopardizing your reputation and loyalty?
  • Prior use of your trademark: Did you use your mark in India before the other party filed their application?
  • Descriptiveness of the new mark: Does it simply describe the product or service, lacking distinctiveness?

Trademark opposition process:

  1. File your Notice of Opposition: Within 4 months of the proposed mark’s publication in the Trade Marks Journal.
  2. State your grounds for opposition: Clearly explain why the new mark infringes your rights.
  3. Evidence gathering: Gather documents supporting your claims, like brand registration certificates, marketing materials, and sales figures.
  4. Respond to counter-arguments: The applicant can file a counter-statement defending their mark. Be prepared to counter their claims.
  5. Hearing before the Trademark Trial and Appeal Board (TTAB): Present your case and evidence to the TTAB, who will decide whether to uphold your opposition and deny the new mark’s registration.

Beyond Opposition: Trademark Litigation

If an infringing trademark has already been registered, or if the opposition fails, you can escalate to trademark litigation. This involves filing a lawsuit in a district court, seeking:

  1. Injunction: To stop the infringing party from using the mark.
  2. Damages: Compensation for any financial losses you suffered due to the infringement.
  3. Cancellation of the infringing trademark.

Trademark Opposition vs. Litigation: A Comparison Table

Feature Trademark Opposition Trademark Litigation
Purpose Prevent registration of an infringing mark. Stop use of an already registered infringing mark and seek damages.
Initiated by Any third party with a legitimate interest (competitors, consumers, etc.). Trademark owner.
Timing Within 4 months of publication of the proposed mark. Any time after the infringing mark is registered.
Cost Relatively cheaper (filing fees start at INR 2,000). More expensive due to court fees and lawyer costs.
Complexity Less complex, based on established grounds for opposition. More complex, involving evidence gathering, witness testimonies, etc.
Timeframe Usually faster, decided by the Trademark Trial and Appeal Board. Can take years depending on court proceedings.
Outcome Prevents registration of the infringing mark. Injunction, damages, and cancellation of the infringing mark.
Ideal for Catching early infringement, resolving simpler cases. Established infringement, seeking compensation and cancellation.

Additional Differences:

  1. Scope: Opposition focuses solely on preventing registration, while litigation addresses ongoing use and potential damages.
  2. Discovery: Limited discovery in opposition compared to the broader discovery process in litigation.
  3. Appeals: Both opposition and litigation decisions can be appealed to higher courts.

Remember: This table provides a general overview and consulting with a qualified trademark attorney is crucial for understanding the specific implications of each option in your case.

4 Strategies for SMEs:

  1. Early trademark registration: Secure your brand name even before launch.
  2. Regularly monitor trademark publications: Be vigilant about potentially infringing marks.
  3. Seek legal counsel: An experienced lawyer can guide you through the intricacies of opposition and litigation.
  4. Consider mediation or alternative dispute resolution: Save time and costs by exploring amicable solutions.

Trademark opposition fees:

  • Opposition: Filing fees range from INR 2,000 to INR 5,000, depending on the number of grounds cited.
  • Litigation: Costs can vary significantly depending on the complexity of the case.

Investing in your brand’s protection is an investment in your future. Don’t let infringers muddy your waters. By understanding the landscape of trademark opposition and litigation, you can wield your legal weapons effectively and safeguard your rightful dominion in the Indian market.


  • This blog is for informational purposes only and does not constitute legal advice.
  • Always consult with a qualified trademark attorney for guidance specific to your case.

By following these strategies and staying informed, you can secure your brand’s rightful place in the Indian business landscape. So, raise your banner high, SMEs, and fight for your rightful market share!

Realated Blog:-
Trademark law in India- Trade Marks Act, 1999
Intellectual Property Infringement: Safeguarding Business Interests

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